At YERRF we are puting
in place a glossary of
business language both in
English and in French. As words come up during
our research or in interviews they will be
added here in English and in French upon the
French section of this website. You simply
find the word in English here and then click
upon it and you will be taken to the French
equivalent and meaning of that word.
Acquisition: Taking ownership of another
Advertising:The activity of attracting
public attention to a product or business, as
by paid announcements in the print, broadcast
or electronic media, to not be confused with
marketing and public relations.
Amortization: Amortization is the paying
off of debt with a fixed repayment schedule in
regular installments over a period of time for
example with a mortgage or a car loan. It also
refers to the spreading out of capital
expenses for intangible assets over a specific
duration (usually over the asset's useful
life) for accounting and tax purposes.
Amount: total quantity of accounts
Angel Investor: An individual who support
emerging entrepreneurial ventures, usually as
a bridge to get from the self-funded stage to
the level of business that would both need and
attract venture capital.
Appraisal: A formal estimate of the value
of something on the open market.
Barter: The direct exchange of merchandise
and/or services between businesses.
Budget: An estimate of costs, revenues,
and resources over a specified period,
reflecting a reading of future financial
conditions and goals.
One of the most
important administrative tools, a budget
serves also as a plan of action for achieving
quantified objectives, standard for measuring
performance, and device for coping with
foreseeable adverse situations.
Business Incubator: A company that
supports startups, in terms of accommodation,
consultancy and financing during the early
stages of the life of the company.
Business to Business: also called B to B
or B2B, is a type of transaction that exists
between businesses, such as one involving a
manufacturer and wholesaler, or a wholesaler
and a retailer.
Business to business
stands in contrast to business to consumer
(B2C) and business to government (B2G)
Consumer: People or group of people who
use a good or service to satisfy
individual or collective needs.
Consumer direct marketing: A form of
Network Marketing in which the distributors
are all also consumers, i.e. they must also
buy the product for personal use.
Contract: A negotiated and legally binding
agreement between two or more parties
regarding the conduct of the action.
Contribution: A sum, established by a
prior agreement or by a statute, which had to
be paid by the members of a group or
organisation for common expenses.
Corporation: An association of individuals,
created by law or under authority of law,
having a continuous existence of its members,
and powers and liabilities distinct from those
of its members.
Delivery: Consignment of an object to a
person who ordered it.
Depreciation: Loss of value.
Due diligence: The inquiry process of
obtaining a sufficient and accurate disclosure
of all material documents and various
information which may have influence the
outcome of the transaction.
Entrepreneur: An individual who organizes,
operates and assumes the risk for a business
Entrepreneurship: Ability for an
individual to create wealth by using labor and
material combined in a business enterprise
General partnership: An organizational
structure in which general partners share in
the administration the profits and the losses
of the operation.
Grant: Financial assistance by the State
or a public person to a private person,
whether natural or legal, for the purpose of
promoting the activity of general interest to
which it is engaged.
Guarantee: Guarantee of a third person,
via bill of exchange or promissory note, who
is committed to pay the amount if not paid by
the other signatories.
Income: All the resources or rights that
an individual, a company or a public authority,
collects over a given period, in kind or in
money, without levying on its patrimony.
Interest: The income generated by a loaned
or invested capital and defined by a rate.
Joint venture: A legal entity created by
two or more businesses joining together to
conduct a specific business enterprise with
both parties sharing profits and losses. It
differs from strategic alliance in that there
is a specific legal entity created.
Limited liability company (LLC): Legal
entity that is not taxable itself and
distributes the profits to its owners but
shields personal assets from business debts as
in a corporation.
Limited partnership: Business arrangement
in which the day-by-day operations are
controlled by one or more general partners and
funded by limited or silent partners on the
amount of their investment.
Loan: A contract by which one of the
parties, the lender, places at the disposal of
the other, the borrower, a thing for his use,
to be repaid at the agreed term, usually
accompanied by a guarantee and giving payment
of interest in the event of a loan of money;
Marketing: The process of researching,
promoting, selling and distributing a product
or service. It includes a broad range of
practices, including advertising, publicity,
promotion, pricing and overall packaging of
the goods or services.
Merger: A joining together of two
previously separate corporations. A true
merger in legal sense occurs when the two
businesses dissolve and move their assets and
liabilities into a newly created entity.
Mortgage: It is an agreement that allows
you to borrow money from a bank or similar
organization, especially in order to buy a
Multi-level marketing (MLM): Any business
in which an individual receives proceeds not
only from their own sales but also from the
sales made by the people they have signed up,
and potentially people those people have
signed up and so on.
Networking: Developing business contacts
to form business relationships, increase your
knowledge, expand your business base, or serve
Order: Request for goods or services from
a customer to a supplier.
Outsourcing: To reduce costs by
transferring all or part of an organization’s
work to an external supplier rather than
completing it internally.
Partnership: A business form in which two
or more individuals carry a continuing
business for profit. A partnership is legally
regarded as a group of individuals rather than
as a single entity, and each of the partners
file their share of the profit on their
individual tax return.
Patent: A property right granted to an
inventor to exclude others from making, using,
offering from sale, or selling the invention
for a limited time in exchange for public
disclosure of the invention when the patent is
Producer: A person, country, enterprise
who produce economic goods.
Public relations (PR): The deliberate
promotion of specific image for a business.
Often confused with publicity which is simply
the material used in a specific part of a
public relations effort.
Rate of interest/interest rate: The
percentage of that annual income in relation
to the amount loaned. For the borrower or
debtor, the interest rate is the price you
have to pay to borrow money.
Sales: The exchange of a product or
service for money. Also refers to the
profession of that activity or a department
within a company that performs that activity.
Sole proprietorship: A business owned and
operated by one person.
Start-up: A small business,or project, that has just
Strategic alliance: An ongoing cooperation
between two businesses in which they combine
efforts for a specific purpose.
Trademark: Form of legal protection for
words, names, symbols, sounds, or colors that
distinguish goods and services. Trademarks,
unlike patents, can be renewed forever as long
as they are being used in business.
Unemployment: It is the situation in which
people cannot find a job even if they are
willing to work and they are able to do it (according
to the age).
Venture capital (VC): Form of financing
for a company in which the business gives up
partial ownership and control of the business
in exchange for capital over limited time
frame, usually 3-5 years.
TO FRENCH GLOSSARY